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ANALYSIS: Artificial Intelligence Export Controls Could Target Semiconductor Hardware

  • January 14, 2020
The National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence's recommendations on the use of export controls to bolster the United States’ AI position—for dual commercial and military uses—illustrates that blunt controls on Artificial Intelligence as a category of emerging technologies, or on broad sub-categories of AI, are not practical and seem unlikely to advance the strategic objectives of ECRA and other U.S. laws, as well as the national and economic security objectives they purport to advance. AI and semiconductor industry stakeholders should take note of the NSCAI’s recommendations and reasoning, engage in the conversation, and watch for indications from the Commerce Department or other U.S. government entities as to what approaches, if any, might be taken to control exports of AI and AI hardware, particularly AI hardware presently dominated by the United States and its allies.
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Huawei: Analysis of Key U.S. Legal Issues and Risks

  • July 8, 2019
After talks with China’s president at the G20 summit in Japan, President Trump announced on June 29 that “he would allow” U.S. companies to continue to sell “product” to Huawei. The statement, construed by some as a “concession” or “reversal” of U.S. policy toward Huawei, has generated confusion and disagreement from China “hawks” in Congress and elsewhere. This rundown of Huawei legal and policy issues discusses the presidential statement, its lack of legal effect to date, its context, and why technology industry stakeholders need to understand the complete U.S.-China technology picture to navigate developments and mitigate risk.
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Huawei Ownership and the Foreign Agents Registration Act

  • April 24, 2019
The United States has adopted a whole-of-government approach to counter China’s “economic aggression” or “economic espionage,” umbrella terms that encompass a range of conduct including IP theft, forced technology transfer, academic espionage, and influence operations in the United States. The whole-of-government approach illustrates that the most strategically significant and complex confrontation between the United States and China is not the “trade war.” Rather, the race to dominate future technologies like artificial intelligence and 5G underpins the most complex legal and policy issues between the two nations. The U.S.-China tech war, and the United States’ whole-of-government strategy, has put Chinese technology companies under the hot light of U.S. legal and political scrutiny. Companies like Huawei and ZTE, relative unknowns in the United States until recently, have found themselves on the wrong side of U.S. law enforcement.
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Proposed Legislation Would Restrict Foreign Participation in Academic Research

  • March 15, 2019
The “Protect Our Universities Act of 2019” is a a bill “to create a task force within the Department of Education to address the threat of foreign government influence and threats to academic research integrity on college campuses, and for other purposes." Among other things, the Bill would restrict foreign student participation in federally funded academic research deemed "sensitive" to national security.
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U.S.-China Trade, Technology and American Academia: The DOJ China Initiative

  • January 29, 2019
On national security grounds, the United States is developing and implementing a whole-of-government approach to maintain the country’s technological edge through legal and policy measures to restrict Chinese access to U.S. technology and intellectual property, including by: (1) limiting or prohibiting certain foreign investment and commercial transactions; (2) adopting export controls on emerging technologies; (3) instituting supply chain exclusions; (4) curbing participation in academic and other research; and (5) combating cyber intrusions and industrial and academic espionage.[2] Additionally, concerns about Chinese government influence have spurred proposals to regulate the activities of entities viewed as Chinese government influence operators.
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U.S.-China Trade, Technology & Global Policy Issues: INFOGRAPHIC

  • January 26, 2019
This graphic depicts key issues between the United States and China, as identified by the United States as of January 26, 2019. This is not an exhaustive depiction, but captures key categories and sub-categories of Chinese state and private practices, state policies, and state structural characteristics that are the subject of U.S. government complaints (as raised from within and outside of the Trump Administration).
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US-China Risks to American Academia Are So Real They Are Insurable

  • December 27, 2018
If there remain doubts that the U.S.-China trade war and technology war present real risks for U.S. colleges and universities, a recent report that a U.S. university has secured insurance against the risk of material reductions in Chinese student enrollment should put those doubts to bed. The risks are so real that they are insurable.
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DOJ Initiative Takes on “Chinese Economic Espionage:” Legal Issues for Academia

  • December 10, 2018
The Department of Justice (DOJ) recently launched an initiative to “Combat Chinese Economic Espionage.” Announced on November 1, 2018 by former Attorney General Jeff Sessions, the China Initiative acts on the Trump Administration’s previous findings “concerning China’s practices” and “reflects the Department’s strategic priority of countering Chinese national security threats and reinforces the President’s overall national security strategy.” The China Initiative presents emerging issues for academia, the technology industry, and the private sector broadly.
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Tech Wars: Fundamental Research, National Security, and Technology Competition

  • November 29, 2018
Fundamental research is excluded from export controls jurisdiction. But given growing concerns about alleged Chinese "academic espionage" at American universities and transfers to China of U.S. scientific and technological information and know-how, including through Chinese students, researchers, and others in fundamental and research pipelines, this excerpt is re-posted separately as foreign (particularly Chinese) access to and participation in U.S. fundamental research may be curbed by non-export controls means.
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Tech Wars: Restrictions on Foreign Access to U.S. Technology

  • October 26, 2018
Measures to curb foreign access to U.S. technology have taken and will likely take various forms that will cut across industries and legal disciplines. Among them, as discussed below, are restrictions on foreign access to and influence on U.S. technology through (1) foreign investment, (2) supply chain exclusions, (3) limits on participation in academic and other research, (4) legal or political curbs on U.S. technology access or transfers through third countries, and (5) countermeasures against foreign control of raw materials essential to technological manufacturing and innovation.
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